When observations occur that fail to fit into their paradigm, those stray observations are often discarded as experimental error or the prevailing paradigm is patched up to account for them. When the prevailing paradigm becomes increasingly unable to explain the strange observations that pile up, eventually somebody would see that those stray observations pointed to a different paradigm.
Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history in MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China.
During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.
The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems.
These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.
Indus script is largely pictorial and has not been deciphered yet. It may or may not include abstract signs. It is thought that they wrote from right to left and that the script is thought to be logographic.
Because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system; however, it is genuinely thought to be an independent writing system that emerged in the Harappa culture. Origins of the alphabet[ edit ] According to social anthropologist Jack Goodythere are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelbcredit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system c. But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".
Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
InWilliam F. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugaritdiscovered in by French archaeologist Claude F. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts written in an early Canaanite dialect that consisted of a letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet. Another significant discovery was made in when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE.
According to Frank Moore Crossthese inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts".
During the Late Bronze Agesuccessor alphabets appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and were employed for PhoenicianHebrew and Aramaic.
According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians.
However, many Semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used c. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated c. It was then that the new script "Square Hebrew" emerged and the older one rapidly died out.
As the Bronze Age collapsedthe Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts.BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Trump Holocaust Law Pisses Off Poles. Jewish Agenda Articles, Holocaust Hype Articles.
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