Physical characteristics[ edit ] Historically, medicine became interested in the problem of crime, producing studies of physiognomy see Johann Kaspar Lavater and Franz Joseph Gall and the science of phrenology which linked attributes of the mind to the shape of the brain as reveal through the skull.
That was primarily a development of the 19th century and a reaction to the rapid social change of the industrial revolution and rapid urbanization. Prior togovernments maintained order by a variety of means, local and national. One of the key historical debates concerns the effectiveness of these approaches and the degree of continuity between the premodern and modern police models.
Around a small number of distinctively different types of police institution emerged. The French, under Napoleon, instituted the Gendarmerie, a state military police model.
The model The history of criminology exported across Europe by Napoleon. The British developed two models. The first, set up to answer similar challenges to the Gendarmerie in France, was the Royal Irish Constabulary model. It was close to the state military model, but distinctively styled as part of the civil power of the state and subordinated to the Magistracy.
The Metropolitan Police was consciously created as a local force with a uniform that was deliberately different from the military and a mission that focused on prevention of crime rather than the repression of disorder.
This state civilian model became the basis for all UK forces on the mainland and the principal influence on the development of East Coast US policing in the s. As the three models have developed and evolved in different political systems over the years sincethey have both diverged and converged in various ways.
There has been significant convergence in the basic disciplines of policing. However, the governance of the police, the use of force, and the management of public disorder have, in many cases, remained quite distinct in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
This bibliography has been organized by national histories. This is, in some ways, the easiest way to organize the material, but it also presents some difficulties in showing some of the crosscutting issues and challenges.
General Overviews This set of references provides a good overall introduction to the history of the police. Emsleyin particular, provides an overview of the history of policing from premodern times to the 20th century, with extensive bibliographic resources for further research.
Uchida provides a good overview of US police history. Wakefield and Fleming provides a set of succinct summaries of the police history from across the globe. However, these general introductions identify a significant gap in the literature, in that there is no credible, single-volume history of the police which has attempted to summarize the similarities and differences in the development of the police across the modern developing world.
There are some more recent attempts to provide comparative analyses of lateth-century policing, but so far policing has tended to be treated as an aspect of national history rather than a subject of more general application.
Mawbyan article in the Handbook of Policing, addresses some of the difficulties of the comparative approach.
However, it does identify some general themes about the relationship between types of policing and industrial development, colonialism and communism, which run across national and regional boundaries.
Emsley provides a very wide-ranging set of articles on policing history generally, and Emsley and Shpayer-Makov provides the best coverage of the history of the detective. The history of policing. The collection is somewhat Anglo-Saxon in its overall focus, and the articles and papers in the collection are all in English.
However, the collection provides a very comprehensive treatment of English-speaking policing and a substantial treatment of European and Commonwealth countries. Emsley, Clive, and Haia Shpayer-Makov, eds. Police detectives in history, — In Handbook of policing.
The article identifies the difficulties of comparative approaches because of the considerable differences between national contexts and stages of societal development.
Mawby includes a short bibliography at the conclusion. The development of the American police: In Critical issues in policing:People choose to work at Florida State University for many reasons, and there are even more reasons why they stay for a career.
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This popular one-volume analysis of the evolution of American criminal justice places contemporary issues of crime and justice in historical perspective.
Criminology. The scientific study of the causation, correction, and prevention of crime. As a subdivision of the larger field of sociology, criminology draws on psychology, economics, anthropology, psychiatry, biology, statistics, and other disciplines to explain the causes and prevention of criminal behavior.
Online shopping for Books from a great selection of Crime & Criminals & more at everyday low prices. “Police history” predates the evolution of the “police” as a permanent occupational group within a bureaucratic institution, providing the primary state response to crime and disorder.
That was primarily a development of the 19th century and a reaction to the rapid social change of the.