Return on Assets This ratio indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The higher the return, the more efficient management is in utilizing its asset base. By dividing, the equation gives us an ROA of Some investment analysts use the net income figure instead of the operating income figure when calculating the ROA ratio.

The Sharpe ratio also tends to fail when analyzing portfolios with significant non-linear risks, such as options or warrants. Formula and Elements of the Sharpe Ratio Modern Portfolio Theory states that adding assets to a diversified portfolio that have low correlations can decrease portfolio risk without sacrificing return.

Adding diversification should increase the Sharpe ratio compared to similar portfolios with a lower level of diversification.

For this to be true, investors must also accept the assumption that risk is equal to volatility which is not unreasonable but may be too narrow to be applied to all investments. The Sharpe ratio is calculated as follows: Alternatively, an investor could use expected portfolio performance and the expected risk-free rate to calculate an estimated Sharpe ratio ex-ante.

Applications of the Sharpe Ratio The Sharpe ratio is often used to compare the change in overall risk-return characteristics when a new asset or asset class is added to a portfolio.

The current risk-free rate is 3. She assumes that the risk-free rate will remain the same over the coming year. She has shown that although the hedge fund investment is lowering the absolute return of the portfolio, it has improved its performance on a risk-adjusted basis. If the addition of the new investment lowered the Sharpe ratio, it should not be added to the portfolio.

This example assumes that the Sharpe ratio based on past performance can be fairly compared to expected future performance.

The Sharpe ratio can also help explain whether a portfolio's excess returns are due to smart investment decisions or a result of too much risk.

Although one portfolio or fund can enjoy higher returns than its peers, it is only a good investment if those higher returns do not come with an excess of additional risk. The greater a portfolio's Sharpe ratio, the better its risk-adjusted performance. In either case, a negative Sharpe ratio does not convey any useful meaning.

Criticisms and Alternatives The Sharpe ratio uses the standard deviation of returns in the denominator as its proxy of total portfolio risk which assumes that returns are normally distributed.

A normal distribution of data is like rolling a pair of dice. We know that over many rolls, the most common result from the dice will be 7 and the least common results will be 2 and However, returns in the financial markets are skewed away from the average because of a large number of surprising drops or spikes in prices.

Additionally, the standard deviation assumes that price movements in either direction are equally risky.

The Sharpe ratio can be manipulated by portfolio managers seeking to boost their apparent risk-adjusted returns history. This can be done by lengthening the measurement interval. This will result in a lower estimate of volatility. For example, the annualized standard deviation of daily returns is generally higher than that of weekly returns which is, in turn, higher than that of monthly returns.

Choosing a period for the analysis with the best potential Sharpe ratio, rather than a neutral lookback period, is another way to cherry-pick the data that will distort the risk-adjusted returns.

It is also possible for an investor to take on too much risk in multiple portfolios and only promote the variation that was lucky enough to have the best returns.

A variation of the Sharpe ratio is the Sortino ratio which removes the effects of upward price movements on standard deviation to focus on the distribution of returns that are below the target or required return. The Sortino ratio also replaces the risk-free rate with the required return in the numerator of the formula.

The goal of the Treynor ratio is to determine whether an investor is being compensated for taking additional risk above the inherent risk of the market.

A high Sharpe ratio is good when compared to similar portfolios or funds with lower returns. The Sharpe ratio has several weaknesses including an assumption that investment returns are normally distributed.We will write a custom essay sample on Ratio analysis can help in measuring business performance and setting objectives/ goals specifically for .

‘Ratio analysis can help in measuring business performance and setting objectives/ goals’ Ratios are calculated from an organisation’s financial statements and are an effective business tool in measuring its performance. The interest coverage ratio is a debt ratio and profitability ratio used to determine how easily a company can pay interest on its outstanding debt.

Ratio analysis is a useful management tool that will improve your understanding of financial results and trends over time, and provide key indicators of organizational performance.

Managers will use ratio analysis to pinpoint strengths and weaknesses from which strategies and initiatives can be formed.

Undertaking ratio analysis and making comparisons to market leaders within your industry will help focus on areas which require attention. By carefully selecting the most suitable ratios business owners and managers can use the results to gain a better understanding of how their organisation is performing.

Investment analysis, defined as the process of evaluating an investment for profitability and risk, ultimately has the purpose of measuring how the given investment is a good fit for a portfolio.

This article also looks at evaluating risk in investment and an investment analysis example.

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Ratio Analysis | Investopedia