Three Types of Thought Some thoughts on thought follow. The way of viewing thoughts here is not identical with discussing the different functions of parts of the intellectual center, nor is it identical with the idea of true vs. I'll try to be more clear as we go on, but if in the following you read something that seems to contradict the basic "Psychology", pursue it a little further—different maps show different things. We think in one of three possible modes:
We find artistic representations Symbols of the abstract and Divine in the calligraphy writing of China and in the hieroglyphic characters of the ancient Egyptians, Mayans and Aztecs.
We see Symbolic representations of abstract concepts etched upon ancient pottery and carved upon cave walls and stone monuments. We even see Symbols drawn within burial sites that pre-date recorded history and the most ancient writing. Since the most ancient times mankind has expressed its thoughts, experiences, feelings and beliefs through the use of Symbols.
Ancient cultures understood that certain animals, metals, patterns, Cycles and Events - both earthly and heavenly - were physical expressions of the unseen Divine Forces which governed their everyday existence and they used Symbols to pictorially represent these Divine Essences and Events.
The Ancients also understood that they lived in a world of duality which expressed itself as either a masculine or feminine principle of nature.
Masculine principles are those aspects of nature which are assertive, bestowing, logical and conscious - the Seed. Feminine principles are those aspects of nature which are passive, receptive, intuitive and subconscious - the Womb.
We are most familiar with these masculine and feminine Symbolic expressions by way of the Egyptian Neters generally referred to as Egyptian gods and goddesses whereby either a masculine or feminine figure is portrayed with either the head of an animal, or some type of physical Symbol depicted atop their head.
If the Neter expresses a feminine principle of Divinity it has a woman's body and if the Neter expresses a masculine principle of Divinity it has a man's body.
And the Ancients were very exact in choosing which animal, weapon, shape or implement they selected to express these abstract concepts. The most important thing to keep in mind when attempting to translate and understand a Symbol is that a Symbol does not simply represent a word, or a letter of an alphabet.
A Symbol represents a Concept! And because it represents a concept, it encompasses all of the various meanings, definitions and insights contained within that particular Concept. It is extremely difficult to evaluate Ancient expressions Symbols by way of modern Western thought; for modern Western thought is bound, and limited, by letters and Words.
However, Ancient Symbolism, and even current Eastern thought, is unbound and evaluates life, Nature and Divinity by way of Concepts - Concepts portrayed by way of Symbols. An equally important thing to keep in mind, when attempting to understand Symbols and Symbolism is that for us to properly understand the meaning of Ancient Symbols we must imagine the way in which Ancient Cultures lived, thought, farmed and hunted.
We must also try to imagine the immense, dark, star-studded and awe-inspiring night sky under which these Ancients lived; a rotating night sky full of not only stars but planets, comets, meteors, Shooting-Stars and Lightening.
And finally we must try to imagine how these Ancient peoples interacted within their society, with their neighbors and with the countless, and uncertain, elements of Nature to which they were exposed.
And finally, we must remember that because Symbolism is extremely Ancient, the Divine Principles and Concepts which the Ancients Symbolized could only be expressed in the tools, weapons, and implements which were available to Ancient Cultures during For example: Where we would express "measurement" by means of surveying equipment, the Ancients would use a rope to Symbolize this same Concept.
Where we may use a bullet to express the "speed of thought" the Ancients Symbolized this concept by means of the Arrow. Where we may express the means of "cutting" or "dissecting" by way of a laser beam, the Ancients would Symbolize this concept with a knife or Sword. And, where we would express the concept of "communication" by way of a computer or radio, the Ancients would Symbolize this same concept through the image of the Tongue.
When we consider all that must be absorbed into the translation of Symbols and Symbolism it is easy to understand how Ancient Symbols can easily be either Mis-translated or partially translated.
This in turn can lead to our misunderstanding, and confusion, of what a particular Symbol fully represents. And if we have difficulty in understanding a single Symbol, how can we possibly fully understand the Divine Truths and Concepts contained within Ancient texts which are "written" with only Symbols?
Since Symbols represent Concepts, they can only be understood through our intuition and Subconscious ; not through reason and logic. Ancient Symbols are the archetypes, the original mental impressions, which have been part of our nature since the earliest beginnings of Time. Symbols are Sacred esoteric depictions which the Ancients used to describe Divine Concepts.
And because Symbolism is embedded deeply within each one of us, it is up to us to reach deep within if we wish to understand, feel and un- Veil the Sacred Concepts which Ancient Symbolism is designed to reveal to us.Logic and Critical Thinking Course packet Instructor: John Davenport Fall introduction to symbolic logic using the sentential calculus and classical syllogistic reasoning, but not although it should not be thought to substitute for an exam preparation course.
2 sub-stages comprise Preoperational thought: The Pre-conceptual sub-stage occurs between about the ages of 2 and 4. The child is able to formulate designs of objects that are not present.
Other examples of mental abilities are language and pretend play. In Boole published An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, in which he developed an algebraic Developing the logical skills necessary to read and write mathematical proofs is emphasized throughout.
(New Mexico State University) and Wesley Fussner (New Mexico State University), "An Introduction to Symbolic Logic," Convergence (July.
Reading requires both the understanding of symbolic thought to translate sounds into letters, and abstract thought to translate words into ideas. The fourth stage, formal operations, begins around age 12 and is concerned with adult-style abstract thought beyond that which is needed to learn to read.
The two works reprinted in this volume are a unique fusion of logical thought and inimitable whimsy. Written by the 19th-century mathematician who also gave us "Alive in Wonderland", they are among the most entertaining logical works ever written, and contain some of the most thought .
The main thrust of this article is to explain Aristotle’s logical system as a whole while correcting some prominent misconceptions that persist in the popular understanding and even in some of the specialized literature.
This is very different than modern symbolic logic. Although Aristotle does use letters to take the place of variable.