These are colloquial phrases used by hospice nurses who have all witnessed the same inexplicable phenomenon: Patients will often laugh and joke, share memories and speak with family and friends, often with complete knowledge of their surroundings and circumstances. In some cases, a patient has displayed this incredible lucidity even if neurologically disabled from birth.
ZinkhanUniversity of Houston Brand image has been an important concept in consumer behavior research since the early s. Our analysis of 28 prior studies indicates that the definition of brand image has not necessarily remained stable over a 35 year time period.
Similarly, there exists little consensus concerning how the construct should be operationalized. An attempt is made here to identify the essential elements of brand image. Numerous studies of brand image have been reported, the phrase has been widely used in a variety of technical and casual applications, and practitioners and academics alike have embraced the concept as the embodiment of the abstract reality that people buy products or brands for something other than their physical attributes and functions.
This proliferation of brand image research has been accompanied by some drawbacks. For example, it has been suggested that over time and through overuse, or misuse, the meaning of "brand image" has evaporated and has lost much of its richness and value Bullmore Others have similarly referred to such indiscriminate application as a debasement of the concept Levy If these criticisms are true, then there is reason for concern.
Of primary concern is whether knowledge development has been impeded in this area due to the lack of a firm base or foundation on which to build.
The way in which brand image is defined determines the nature of research questions that are posed, the methods that are used, and ultimately how findings are translated to the creative process Reynolds and Gutman If there is no agreement at this fundamental definitional level, it is very unlikely that comparable and generalizable results will be forthcoming from this stream of research.
These issues demonstrate the importance of foundations studies to consumer behavior theorists. By tracing definitions and justifications, which is a key element of foundational research Kerlingerthose within the discipline can examine the sorts of knowledge claims that are being made and determine if a consensus is developing, both in terms of conceptualization and in terms of measurement.
If it is not, the findings are likely to provide insight for forging agreement and greater precision in future work. This paper has three objectives. First, it seeks to provide a centralized collection of definitions and conceptions of brand image, and in so doing documents the evolution of this vital behavioral concept.
Second, by identifying the major similarities and variations that exist in conceptualization, it will allow an assessment of whether there is a viable and foundationally secure definition of "brand image". And finally, some suggestions are made for guiding future research efforts in this important area.
Criticizing previous research for being too superficial in its focus on stereotypical purchase reasons, they suggested that it was time to scratch beneath the surface and identify more enduring motivations for purchase.
Their conception was that products had a social and psychological nature as well as a physical one, and that the sets of feelings, ideas and attitudes that consumers had about brands, their "image" of brands, were crucial to purchase choice. While Gardner and Levy were the first to capture the essence of brand image in writing, the underlying idea of which they wrote was not entirely new.
And in James Duesenberry had observed that the act of consumption as symbolic behavior was probably more important to the individual than the functional benefits of the product.
These include 1 the names which have been ascribed to this phenomenon, 2 the formal definitions that have been offered, 3 the components of brand image, 4 the instruments that have been used to measure it, and 5 perspectives on the origin, creation, formulation and manipulability of brand image.
Despite this academic multiformity, brand image has become a vital concept for marketing managers. As a point of clarification, it should be noted that in many of the works on this subject, authors have tended to use the word "product" interchangeably with "brand". These terms are similarly used here as synonymsunless otherwise stated.
While these articles substantively agree that consumers discriminate among products on other than purely physical dimensions, they differ in the names which they ascribe to this phenomenon. One genre of works reflects on the symbolic nature of brands and products, adopting such labels as "symbolic utility" Pohlman and Mudd"the symbols by which we buy" Levy and "perceived product symbolism" Sommers to describe the intangible aspect of consumer product evaluation.
Others have tended to emphasize human qualities and, accordingly, have coined such terms as "brand personality" Hendon and Williams"brand character" Hendon and Williams"personality image" Sirgyand "the social and psychological nature of products" Gardner and Levy Those who study this subject by focusing on the underlying meanings which consumers attribute to brands have described their object of inquiry as the "brand meaning" Durgee and Stuart"the psychological meaning of products" Friedmann and Lessigand "the messages communicated" by products Swartz While not exhaustive, this collection does represent a good cross section of the definitions that have been offered in the past three decades.
Journals have provided the source for most of these definitions, while a few were taken from textbooks, monographs or the popular press. These definitions have been grouped into broad categories, although perhaps somewhat arbitrarily, on the basis of their principal emphasis, and within each group have been listed chronologically.
This allows the major conceptual developments and variations to be more easily identified, illustrated and traced.
The five assigned categories include blanket definitions, and those which emphasize symbolism, meanings or messages, personification, and cognitive or psychological dimensions. Blanket Definitions Several of the definitions are so broad that they seem to contribute little to a refined understanding of the brand image concept.
While it is therefore difficult to compare these to other more systematic definitions, it is important to acknowledge them because they are rather effective expressions of the general sense of brand image as an abstraction.
Those that fall within this category include such references as "the sum of the total impressions Herzog"everything the people associate with the brand" Newmanand "the product perception" Runyon and Stewart In their simplicity and comprehensive totality, these usages highlight the fact that the notions that people have about a product or brand may not always coincide with its actual physical profile, and that what is important is how consumers see the product.
That the perception of reality is more important than reality itself is a theme which underlies most conceptualizations of brand image. As encapsulations of this theme, these blanket definitions are most felicitous.
Emphasis on Symbolism Probably as an offshoot of the motivation research era, several of the definitions relate commercial objects to symbols.Who Was Albert Einstein? Albert Einstein (March 14, to April 18, ) was a German mathematician and physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity.
Who Was Albert Einstein? Albert Einstein (March 14, to April 18, ) was a German mathematician and physicist who developed the .
Luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
It was invoked to explain the ability of the apparently wave-based light to propagate through empty space, something that waves should not be able to caninariojana.com assumption of a spatial plenum of luminiferous aether, rather than a spatial vacuum, provided the theoretical. Book Information.
TIWI: Art History Culture The Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Publishing, A new landmark publication marking a century in the lives and culture of the unique Tiwi people of Bathurst and Melville Islands.
Connection of the Dreaming, Land and Identity. Investigate the inextricable connection of the Dreaming, the land and identity. Aboriginal spirituality is inextricably linked to land, “it’s like picking up a piece of dirt and saying this is where I started and this is where I’ll go.
explain the inextricable connection of the dreaming, the land and identity, talking into account the diversity of the dreaming for abriginal peoples. The Aboriginal peopleÐ²Ð‚™s inextricable connection to the Land and the natural world provides a link between the people and the Dreaming.5/5(1).