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According to rules that varied from province to province, farmers were allowed to hire a certain numbers of laborers, and sell their surplus.
Peasants were not allowed to own land but they were given long term leases and rights to renew the leases so their was an incentive for them to take care of the land. Land rightsexcept in terms of buying, selling and titled ownershipwas given to agriculture labor organization to individual families.
In effect the pre-revolutionary system was restored with state holding claim to part of the crop instead of the landlord. In the s, families in areas affected by the reforms were given a little over half an acre to tend.
Those that possessed good fertile land were able to make a healthy profits growing rice, vegetables, sugar and other products.
Those that wanted more joined together with other farmers and improved irrigation and roads and became more productive an made even more money. Deng also introduced incentive price bonuses for above-quota grain production and launched a "responsibility system" which allowed farmers to sell surplus crops on the open market after the met their government quotas.
Inin an effort to increase production, the quota was dropped completely in for all crops expect cotton and grain. Even though many farmers used hoes instead of tractors, crop yields jumped dramatically.
Wheat production doubled between and from 41 million to 87 million tons. By the output of grains and tubers was three times that of India and almost equal to that of the U. Agriculture has been neglected in the later stages of the economic reforms. By the s the benefits received by farmers began to level off and the real farm incomes decreased as the costs of fertilizer, hybrid seeds and other necessities rose faster than crop prices.
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Communes and collectives were dismantled and were divided up into plots of land that was leased back to peasants who were encouraged to raise crops to sell in private markets.The article describes the process of China’s agricultural reform, categorising it into four stages.
The first stage, The introduction of the household-responsibility system and the reconstruction of the rural micromanagement body. household responsibility system the system put into practice in china beginning in the early s in which the major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government.
Lardy, Nicholas R., , Prospects and some policy problems of agricultural development in China, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 68, Lin, Justin Yifu, , The household responsibility system in China's agricultural reform: A theoretical and empirical study, Economic Development and Cultural Change 36, SS corresponding agricultural policy adjustment and system reform.
1 Agricultural reform and structural adjustment After twenty years’ reform, China’s agriculture has witnessed considerable progress. 2) The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems.
What is the overall goal of this initiative? Post-Household Responsibility System – the case of the Two-farmland System One example of the type of reforms that have emerged to address the shortcomings of the HRS is the Two-farmland system (TFS).