In rats, intracerebroventricular ICV CRF induces anxiety-like behaviour, and in rhesus monkeys, CRF administration produces distinct behavioural changes, including lying down, huddling, wallfacing and decreased locomotion. In humans, increased activity within CRF neurons has been associated with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and major depression.
The publications are referenced in this summary and are contained in the Appendices in full length and annotated form.
|Neuroanatomy||Hypothalamus H develops in basal plate, ventral to sulcus limitans SL and caudal to the groove that separates medial striatal ridge M from preoptic region P.|
|Looking for the full-text?||The large changes in electrical potential, however, are created by only a very small net movement of ions.|
|Recommended publications||Mice were killed by perfusion through the left heart ventricle after being anesthetized by an ip injection of pentobarbital sodium.|
|Neuronal Basis of Behavioral State Control - Comprehensive Physiology||Nucleus raphe dorsalis Nomenclature The Latin names commonly used for most of these nuclei are grammatically and orthographically incorrect.|
P n AppTb t-O. This pattern was present in ail brains from the day survival groups. Finally, degenerative changes emerged on day 5 in another set of structures, which included basolateral. The same pat- tern of degeneration was observed on day 7: Thus, the toxic effects of a single i.
Regional selectivity of trimethyitin toxicity. These patterns are identical in all brains from the day and day survival periods, respectively. These figures document two salient fea- tures of TMT intoxication: The selective destruction of neuronal populations can be documented with silver degeneration methods by observation of argyrophtlic neuronal somata and dendrites in a given structure, followed temporally by the appearance of degener- ating axons and terminals in distinct efferent path- ways.
The time courses of these selective degenerative changes are described for each brain region in the sections that follow. In the interest of brevity, refer- ences germane to discrete toxic effects are cited in the description of data; details of individual patterns of degeneration are not reviewed in the discussion.
Septum The earliest degenerative changes in the brain appeared 24 h after TMT intoxication in the septum. The argyrophtlic reaction in these neurons intensified steadily through day 4, when the somata and dendrites were stained uniformly. This pattern is shown in a micrograph in Fig.
In addition, a few argyrophilic neurons developed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis during this period. The involvement of similarly distributed cells that project to the lateral hypothalamic area and the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca4' was indicated by the appearance of sparse axonal and terminal debris in these regions, beginning on day 2.
During daysthis pattern of degeneration expanded to include scattered degenerating neurons in the dorsal division of the lateral septal nucleus, the medial septal nucleus, and the septal aspect of nucleus accumbens Figs 17 and Hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex The evolution of degenerative changes in hippo- campal neuron populations and both intrinsic and extrinsic axonal projections presented a striking pic- ture of the specificity of TMT.
Given the relative complexity of the data from these regions, the distri- bution of degenerating somata will be described initially, followed by a description of the resultant terminal degeneration.
Argyrophilic neurons were first apparent in the hippocampal formation on day 2. In particular, degenerating neurons tended to appear in clusters in the latter region.
The greatest variability in the extent of degeneration was observed on day 3, from the degree seen on day 2 to a completely developed pattern seen on day 4 Fig.
This day 4 pattern, shown in Figs As reported previously,1"1 the distribution of degenerating neurons in the hilus and dentate gyrus followed a septo-temporal gradient, with more mas- sive degeneration temporally than septally at 4 days.
By 7 days, degenerating pyramidal cells were ob- served throughout the CA fields, the hilar region and the dentate gyrus, with the most pronounced damage in CA Figs As in other hippocampal fields, degenerating pyramidal cells in the subiculum appeared initially on day 2.
The toxic response appeared to develop completely by day 4. At this stage, degenerating pyramidal cells were prominent throughout the dorsoventral extent of the subiculum, but the presubiculum and parasubkuJum were spared Figs This pattern persisted on day 7, with only an occasional degenerating neuron in the pre- or panuubtcular fields Figs Finally, degenerating neurons were distributed caudally in the transition region between subicular and retrosplenial cortices termed "postsubiculum" by some authors" by day 7.
In the entorhinal cortex, layer II neurons were most susceptible to TMT intoxication, showing a dense argyrophilic reaction on day 2. This pattern expanded on days 3 and 4 to include cells in layers III-V.anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei, the medial and lateral habenular nuclei, parts, nuclei and important connections of thalamus.) the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens.
•Also to cingulate, and possibly orbitofrontal cortex Functions. Objective: Major depressive disorder is characterized by impaired reward processing, possibly due to dysfunction in the basal ganglia.
However, few neuroimaging studies of depression have distinguished between anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a task that dissociates anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing, the authors.
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Mar 11, · The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (Pa) in nonhuman primates. The Pa is a small group of densely-packed neurons in the dorsal midline thalamus. The Pa is a small group of densely-packed neurons in the dorsal midline thalamus.
In addition, the anterior entopeduncular nucleus, central thalamic nucleus, anterior and posteroventral divisions of the lateral thalamic nucleus, and torus semicircularis project exclusively to the striatum, whereas the anterior thalamic nucleus, anteroventral, and anterodorsal tegmental nuclei provide inputs solely to the nucleus accumbens.